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Example - My Little Pony

We will implement a smart contract called MyLittlePony, to demonstrate how a contract can:

  • define entrypoint methods
  • define fields as data in contract storage

From the last chapter, we have learned that the macro contract on struct allows getting or setting data from or into the world state. The key to be stored started with a zero-indexed u8 integer ordered by the fields in the contract struct.

In this chapter, we first create a struct, MyLittlePony, that consists of name, age, and gender. In this case, name has key [0] while age has key [1]. define MyLittlePony

use pchain_sdk::{
    contract, contract_methods, call, contract_field

pub struct MyLittlePony {
    name: String,
    age: u32,
    gender: Gender,

Next, we need to declare the Gender struct, which is the type of the gender field. To use the nested struct in the contract struct, we need the contract_field macro to define the key of its fields in canonical format. For instance, gender should have a key started with [2] in the contract MyLittlePony, so the name in Gender struct has a key [2][0]. define Gender

struct Gender {
    name: String,
    description: String

After getting all the structs ready, we should start implementing the contract methods. This smart contract should provide three method calls:

  • self_introduction()
  • grow_up()
  • change_pony()

Firstly, self_introduction() uses receiver &self to load all data before executing this method. All data will be loaded to the receiver self from the world state. In this way, we can obtain all the values of the fields in the contract, including the fields in the Gender struct. load data with &self

impl MyLittlePony {

    fn self_introduction(&self) -> String {
        format!("Hi, I am {}. Age of {}. I am {} that means {}.",
  , self.age,, self.gender.description)

In the next method, we are going to illustrate how we can use contract getter and setter to access the data in the world state. The advantage of this is that the Write gas cost is smaller compared to what we did in self_introduction() because only one key-value pair (i.e. age) is involved.

Instead of passing &self as an argument, simply do Self::get_<field_name>() to get the value and Self::set_<field_name>() to set updated value. getter and setter

fn grow_up() {
    let age = Self::get_age();

Lastly, we want to change our little pony, so we use a mutable receiver &mut self to load data before executing this method, then store all data after execution. However, we should be cautious when using a mutable receiver as it is expensive to load and store since it mutates all key-value pairs (i.e. name, age and gender) in the world state. load data with a mutable receiver

fn change_pony(&mut self, name: String, age: u32, gender_name: String, description: String) {
        format!("update name:{} description: {}", name, description).as_bytes()); = name;
    self.age = age; = gender_name;
    self.gender.description = description;

Now you should have learned how to get and set contract fields in your smart contract.